Motors Skills Disorder Overview
Motor skills disorder, also called motor coordination disorder or motor dyspraxia, is a common disorder of childhood. It is estimated to be present in about 6% of school age children (between ages 5 and 11 yrs).
Children with this disorder have associated problems including difficulty in processing visuospatial information needed to guide their motor actions they may not be able to recall or plan complex motor activities such as:
- doing gymnastics,
- catching or throwing a ball with accuracy, or
- producing fluent legible handwriting.
- Often there is a history of early delay in the development of motor skills. This may present as a delay in the ability to sit up or learning to walk well.
- Often, these children are described as clumsy or forgetful, (for example, they may never turn the water faucet or lights off).
- These children may have difficulty using a cup, spoon or fork to eat.
- They may have the tendency to drop items or run into walls/furniture and have frequent accidents due to motor planning difficulties.
- They may have trouble with tasks requiring hand-eye coordination and dexterity (hammering a nail, connecting wires etc.).
- These children may also have difficulty holding a pencil and learning to write.
- Motor skills disorder can be extremely disabling both in academic settings (school) as well as in everyday life due to impairment of functioning. Children and adults with this disorder are at risk for obesity, due to the higher rates of physical inactivity, and often suffer from low self-esteem as well as academic underachievement.
There is no known exact cause of this disorder; however, it is often associated with physiological or developmental abnormalities such as:
- developmental disabilities (cognitive deficits), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and mathematics or reading learning disorders.
Differentiated from other motor disorders, such as:
- cerebral palsy,
- muscular dystrophy, and
- inherited metabolic disorders.
Children with this disorder have variable symptoms, depending on the age of diagnosis (as with most childhood disorders).
Young infants may present with non-specific findings, such as hypotonia (floppy baby) or hypertonia (rigid baby).
Older infants may be delayed in their ability to sit, stand or walk.
Toddlers may have difficulty feeding themselves.
Older children may have a hard time learning to hold a pencil, and tend to knock over drinking glasses more often than expected.
As children with this disorder age, they often avoid physical activities, especially those requiring complex motor behaviors such as:
- catching or throwing a ball,
- writing, or
This is due to the individual’s propensity to fall or trip more often than others and their inability to complete motor tasks adequately. These individuals may have more bruises or superficial skin injuries due to being “clumsy”. They may often feel unable to judge spatial distances and have difficulty with shutting off faucets, turning off devices, and tend to have trouble putting together puzzles or toys.
Children with this disorder should receive treatment as early as possible to prevent secondary complications such as academic failure or social withdrawal, which are all well described but preventable consequences if intervention occurs at an early age. Any neurological or motor abnormality should be investigated fully; however, it is important to remember that different children develop normally at different rates. For example the vast majority of children who refuse to walk by 18 months of age are normal, and only a very few are diagnosed with true motor delays.
Exams and Tests
- An occupational therapy examination usually includes the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT). This is a standardized instrument that is used to measure both gross motor and fine motor skills in children. The test takes about an hour and involves a series of game-like challenges that assess a range of motor skills
- It is important to emphasize that one size does not fit all when designing a therapeutic intervention for children with motor skills disorder. It is also important to understand that although many interventions are offered, very few have been rigorously tested and proven to be effective.
- Generally, most children respond to multimodal treatment. This involves an occupational therapist and physical therapist working with the child, often with the assistance of educational professionals using “perceptual motor training” techniques to help the person to improve their motor clumsiness.
- Practice and repetition are often helpful in improving handwriting; however, “bypass” methods are utilized as well. These may involve allowing for unlimited testing times, and using assistive writing devices.
- Other therapies that have been recommended include cognitive and sensory integration therapy and kinesthetic training.
Many other therapies have been touted as effective, but have not been researched enough to be recommended.
- Some therapies, such as “visual training” have been outright discounted through scientific evaluation.
- It is important to discuss therapeutic options with your child’s physician. There are many modalities which have been shown to be effective, yet have not been fully tested in a large enough study to be recommended without reservations.
Self Care at Home
- The amount of frustration engendered in trying to achieve competency with motor activities should be balanced against the potential gain in proficiency.
- For children with this disorder, it is important for parents to regulate and monitor activities to avoid frustration or overstimulation.
- Children who cannot yet tie their shoelaces should be allowed to use assistive devices, slip on, or Velcro shoes; the same principle should be applied for adolescents or adults with this disorder.
- In adolescence, it is more realistic and helpful to use assistive technology (for example, using a keyboard) rather than trying to achieve handwriting legibility if not already achieved during the elementary school period.
GRoW UP CLINIC JAKARTA Yudhasmara Foundation GRoW UP CLINIC I Jl Taman Bendungan Asahan 5 Bendungan Hilir Jakarta Pusat 10210, phone (021) 5703646 – 44466102 GRoW UP CLINIC II MENTENG SQUARE Jl Matraman 30 Jakarta Pusat 10430, Phone (021) 44466103 – 97730777email : http://growupclinic.com http://www.facebook.com/GrowUpClinic @growupclinic
“GRoW UP CLINIC” Jakarta Focus and Interest on: *** Allergy Clinic Online *** Picky Eaters and Growup Clinic For Children, Teen and Adult (Klinik Khusus Gangguan Sulit Makan dan Gangguan Kenaikkan Berat Badan)*** Children Foot Clinic *** Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic *** Oral Motor Disorders and Speech Clinic *** Children Sleep Clinic *** Pain Management Clinic Jakarta *** Autism Clinic *** Children Behaviour Clinic *** Motoric & Sensory Processing Disorders Clinic *** NICU – Premature Follow up Clinic *** Lactation and Breastfeeding Clinic *** Swimming Spa Baby & Medicine Massage Therapy For Baby, Children and Teen ***
Professional Healthcare Provider “GRoW UP CLINIC” Dr Narulita Dewi SpKFR, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation curriculum vitae HP 085777227790 PIN BB 235CF967 Clinical – Editor in Chief : Dr WIDODO JUDARWANTO, pediatrician email : email@example.com curriculum vitae : @WidoJudarwanto www.facebook.com/widodo.judarwanto Mobile Phone O8567805533 PIN BB 25AF7035
We are guilty of many errors and many faults. But our worst crime is abandoning the children, neglecting the fountain of life.
Information on this web site is provided for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. You should not use the information on this web site for diagnosing or treating a medical or health condition. You should carefully read all product packaging. If you have or suspect you have a medical problem, promptly contact your professional healthcare provider